♫ Cantillizer ש֕ - Cantillation Results

  1. Introduction
  2. Prosody
    1. Disjunctive Hierarchy
      1. Data Analysis
    2. Disjunctive Stich Structure
      1. 21 Books
      2. Song of Songs
    3. Conjunctive Subordination
    4. Conjunctive Data
  3. Psalmody
    1. Disjunctive Hierarchy
    2. Disjunctive Verse Structure
      1. Psalms
      2. Job
      3. Proverbs
    3. Conjunctive Subordination
    4. Conjunctive Data

Introduction

The preliminary data obtained by Cantillizer follow. Each and every cantillation mark in the Leningrad Codex appears below in separate tables for prosodic and psalmodic books showing the relationship of disjunctive signs to one another and of conjunctive to disjunctive signs. Additional tables display the most frequent stich patterns for prosodic books, isolating the Song of Songs, and verse patterns for psalmodic books, individually Job (body), Psalms, and Proverbs. For the moment data analysis is limited to the one short paragraph that time has allowed for.

Prosody

Disjunctive Hierarchy

Disjunctive Signs (###,### in ##,### verses)

y precedes x
MnLg
DbGr
Grsh
GtTl
GtPz
LtPz
Tvir
Ytiv
Psta
Zrka
Rvia
Tfka
GtZk
LtZk
GtSl
Sgol
Atnk
Sluk
Total
Munakh Legarmeh



















Double Geresh



















Geresh



















Great Telisha



















Great Pazer



















Little Pazer



















Tevir



















Yetiv



















Pashta



















Zarka



















Revia



















Tifkha



















Great Zakef



















Little Zakef



















Great Shalshelet



















Segolta



















Atnakh



















Sof Pasuk



















Remarks:

Data Analysis

Disjunctive Rules

Lowest Preceding Sign
MnLg
?
MnLg
?
?
?
MnLg
?
MnLg
?
MnLg
Tvir
GtZk
Ytiv
NA
Zrka
Tfka
Tfka
Sign
MnLg
DbGr
Grsh
GtTl
GtPz
LtPz
Tvir
Ytiv
Psta
Zrka
Rvia
Tfka
GtZk
LtZk
GtSl
Sgol
Atnk
Sluk
Highest Following Sign
Rvia
Rvia
Rvia
?
Rvia
?
Tfka
LtZk
LtZk
Sgol
Zrka
Sluk
LtZk
LtZk
Rvia
?
Sluk
NA

The data clearly confirm the four-tier hierarchical model. Emperors follow kings, which follow dukes, which follow earls. There is not one case of an emperor following a duke or an earl, nor of a king following an earl. However, within each rank (except for emperor) succession confers subordination. Thus tifkha follows zakef, which follows segolta, tevir, pashta, and zarka follow revia, and legarmeh follows geresh, which follows telisha, which follows pazer. Exceptions to the latter rule occur, especially among the earls, rule-governed among the dukes, but never among the kings. This fairly rigid linear hierarchy hides a more subtle vertical hierarchy, in which (given longer stichs) revia and zarka may climb higher up in the constituent structure than tifkha, as exemplified in Esther 8:9.

The breakdown of each rank as a percentage of total disjunctive signs:

Wickes and Jacobson distinguish instances of little pazer (Genesis 50:11) and great telisha (Numbers 9:3) preceding, but subordinate to, geresh (or even to geresh syncopated by a conjunctive sign, as in Genesis 19:2). Munakh legarmeh exceptionally preceding geresh, tevir (and pashta?) is said to play the same subordinate role. Cantillizer does not support this averred construction unless and until formal criteria to identify it are found, such as great telisha only and always when preceding azla > geresh (### occurrences), or pazer only and always when preceding little telisha > azla > geresh (### occurrences), or legarmeh only and always when preceding a disjunctive sign (disregarding conjunctives) other than itself or revia (15 occurrences).

Disjunctive Stich Structure

Atnakh and silluk have been equalized. Due to its great prosodic regularity, the Song of Songs is analyzed separately. This diagram represents the normalized stich.

21 Books

Most Frequent Stich Patterns (##,### verses, ##,### stichs, prosodic Job included)

The ### most frequent equalized stichs represent ###% of the total.

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Song of Songs

Most Frequent Stich Patterns (117 verses, 203 stichs)

The single most frequent equalized stich represents a whopping 47% of the total, and that does not even include the three yetiv allographs of pashta in the same sequence. The Song of Songs is by far the most regularly punctuated of the prosodic books. The title, verse and refrain structure, chorus of Daughters of Jerusalem (bridesmaids), everything about the composition suggests a musical setting. The imagery and figures of speech foreshadow the lyrical conventions of oriental and occidental pastoral and courtly love poetry. In this rhetorical context of stately eroticism the more formal prosody does not surprise.

All of these concordant factors evince shorter, more regular verses, 9.9 total signs (or words, as reckoned by cantillation) per verse, as opposed to 12.5 in the rest of the prosodic books.

ש ש֖ ש֔ ש֙
96
ש ש֖


33
ש ש֖ ש֛

15
ש ש֖ ש֔ ש֙ ש֗
10
ש ש֖ ש֔

10

Conjunctive Subordination

Conjunctive Sequences

y follows x
None
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
Munakh Legarmeh

### Mrka
### Azla
or
### Mnkh




Double Geresh

### Mnkh





Geresh

### Azla
or
### Mnkh
### LtTl


### Mnkh


### Mnkh


### Mnkh



Great Telisha

### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh

Great Pazer

### Glgl
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
Little Pazer

### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
### Mnkh
Tevir

### Drga

or

### Mrka
### Azla
or
### Mnkh

### Azla
or
### Mnkh
### LtTl



### LtTl


### Mnkh



### Mnkh




Pashta

### Mhpk

or

### Mrka
### Azla
or
### Mnkh

### Azla
or
### Mnkh
### LtTl



### LtTl


### Mnkh



### Mnkh


### Mnkh






### Mnkh






Zarka


### Mnkh

or
### Mrka
### Azla
or
### Mnkh

### Azla
### LtTl



### LtTl




### Mnkh


Revia

### Mnkh
### Drga
### Mnkh



Tifkha

### Mrka
or
### DbMr


### Drga




Little Zakef

### Mnkh
### Mnkh




Segolta

### Mnkh
### Mnkh




Atnakh

### Mnkh
### Mnkh




Silluk

### Mrka





Remarks:

1st Conjunctive Signs

y precedes x
MnLg
DbGr
Grsh
GtTl
GtPz
LtPz
Tvir
Psta
Zrka
Rvia
Tfka
LtZk
Sgol
Atnk
Sluk
Munakh















Merekha















Mehupakh















Azla















Darga















Galgal















Double Merekha















Remarks:

Conjunctive Data

Conjunctive Signs (##,### in ##,### verses)
Sign
Total
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
Remarks
Munakh







Munakh tends to precede non-final signs: atnakh, segolta, little zakef, revia, little pazer, great telisha.
Merekha







Merekha tends to precede final signs: silluk, tifkha, zarka (munakh preceding far more frequently), pashta, tevir, munakh legarmeh.
Mehupakh







Mehupakh precedes pashta.
Azla







Azla precedes geresh. (Albeit a final sign, geresh may also follow munakh, as does double geresh.)
Darga







Darga precedes tevir.
Little Telisha







Little telisha precedes azla.
Galgal







Galgal precedes great pazer.
Double Merekha







Double merekha follows darga, precedes tifkha.

The breakdown of conjunctive signs:

Psalmody

Disjunctive Hierarchy

Disjunctive Signs (##,### in #,### verses)

y precedes x
MhLg
AzLg
LtPz
Dkhi
Tnor
GtSl
RvMg
Rvia
Atnk
OlVy
Sluk
Total
Mehupakh Legarmeh












Azla Legarmeh












Little Pazer












Dekhi












Tsinor












Great Shalshelet












Revia Mugrash












Revia












Atnakh












Ole Veyored












Sof Pasuk












Remarks:

Disjunctive Verse Structure

Each of the 3 books is analyzed separately. Psalmody is comparatively short-winded, ###.# disjunctive signs per verse, as opposed to 7.9 in the prosodic books. ##,### conjunctive signs (###% of disjunctive signs) serve, as opposed to 57% in the prosodic books.

Psalms

Most Frequent Verse Patterns (#,### verses)

שֽ






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Job

Most Frequent Verse Patterns (#,### verses, prosodic prologue & epilogue excluded)

שֽ






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###
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###
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Proverbs

Most Frequent Verse Patterns (### verses)

שֽ






###
שֽ






###
שֽ






###
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###
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###
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Conjunctive Subordination

Conjunctive Sequences

y follows x
None
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Mehupakh Legarmeh






Azla Legarmeh






Little Pazer






Dekhi






Tsinor






Great Shalshelet






Revia Mugrash






Revia






Atnakh






Ole Veyored






Silluk






Remarks:

1st Conjunctive Signs

y precedes x
MhLg
AzLg
LtPz
Dkhi
Tnor
GtSl
RvMg
Rvia
Atnk
OlVy
Sluk
Azla











Galgal











Illuy











Little Shalshelet











Mehupakh











Merekha











Munakh











Tarkha











Tsinorit











Conjunctive Data

Conjunctive Signs (#,### in #,### verses)
Sign
Total
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
Remarks
Azla







Galgal







Illuy







Little Shalshelet







Mehupakh







Merekha







Munakh







Tarkha







Tsinorit







Remarks:

Abbreviations

Cantillizer